The campaign called GULP – Give Up Loving Pop – has been created by the Health Equalities Group, based in Liverpool, which is supported by the NHS and local authorities.
GULP also highlights links between the drinks and tooth decay and type 2 diabetes.
Sugar has been labelled the ‘new tobacco’ by some health experts, who warn it is fuelling a national obesity epidemic, particularly among children.
A number of campaigning organisations are supporting the idea of a tax on sugary drinks both to reduce consumption and raise money to support health and sports schemes for youngsters.
Recent research by the University of Liverpool claimed that added a 20p tax to the drinks would save thousands of children from diabetes, cancer and heart disease.
They argued such a levy would prevent 1,100 cases of cancer in London alone, as well as reducing the number of people who develop diabetes by 6,300 and cut the number of people suffering from coronary heart disease or strokes by 4,300.
Based on these figures, it seems tens of thousands of cases of disease could be prevented if the 20p per litre tax was adopted across the entire UK.
Over 60 organisations – including Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, British Dietetic Association, CitizensUK, Faculty of Public Health, Netmums and Unison – have already backed the campaign for a sugary drinks tax.
Supporters also include Rosie Boycott, who was appointed by the mayor of London, Boris Johnson, to run the London Food Board.
Soft drinks are the largest single source of sugar for children aged 4-10 years and teenagers.
A tax of 20p a litre would add around 7p to the price of a standard can of Coca-Cola or Pepsi.
Director of the GULP campaign, Robin Ireland, said: ‘Few people fully realise the harm that sugary drinks can do to your health.
‘As well as damaging your teeth, overconsumption of these drinks can lead to weight gain, type 2 diabetes and poor heart health.
‘Given the levels of overweight and obesity across the UK, in particular amongst youngsters, unless we start to take action on sugary drinks we will be storing up problems for future generations.
‘As sugary drinks manufacturers seem less-than-willing to inform the public about the health harms associated with overconsumption of their products we’ve launched our Gulp campaign to get the message across and take the fight to the manufacturers.’
He added: ‘With 40per cent of young people reportedly drinking three or more glasses of sugary drinks per day it is vital that we a send a message to Government about the damage that is being done to the health of our children and young people and the need for education on healthier alternatives.’
However, the director general of the British Soft Drinks Association, Gavin Partington, accused the campaign of ‘scaremongering.’
He said: ‘If these campaigners were genuinely interested in public health they would be seeking to educate all consumers about the importance of a balanced diet and physical exercise rather than erroneously targeting one product category and making claims not supported by the evidence.’
The occasion was a tour of a facility that burns human waste and produces water and electricity (plus a little ash). I have visited lots of similar sites, like power plants and paper mills, so when I heard about this one—it’s part of the Gates Foundation’s effort to improve sanitation in poor countries—I was eager to check it out.
The water tasted as good as any I’ve had out of a bottle. And having studied the engineering behind it, I would happily drink it every day. It’s that safe.
Here’s a short video from my visit in November, which explains how it all works:
Why would anyone want to turn waste into drinking water and electricity?
Because a shocking number of people, at least 2 billion, use latrines that aren’t properly drained. Others simply defecate out in the open. The waste contaminates drinking water for millions of people, with horrific consequences: Diseases caused by poor sanitation kill some 700,000 children every year, and they prevent many more from fully developing mentally and physically.
If we can develop safe, affordable ways to get rid of human waste, we can prevent many of those deaths and help more children grow up healthy.
Western toilets aren’t the answer, because they require a massive infrastructure of sewer lines and treatment plants that just isn’t feasible in many poor countries. So a few years ago our foundation put out a call for new solution.
One idea is to reinvent the toilet, which I’ve written about before.
Another idea—and the goal of the project I toured—is to reinvent the sewage treatment plant. The project is called the Omniprocessor, and it was designed and built by Janicki Bioenergy, an engineering firm based north of Seattle. I recently went to Janicki’s headquarters to check out an Omniprocessor before the start of a pilot project in Senegal.
The Omniprocessor is a safe repository for human waste. Today, in many places without modern sewage systems, truckers take the waste from latrines and dump it into the nearest river or the ocean—or at a treatment facility that doesn’t actually treat the sewage. Either way, it often ends up in the water supply. If they took it to the Omniprocessor instead, it would be burned safely. The machine runs at such a high temperature (1000 degrees Celsius) that there’s no nasty smell; in fact it meets all the emissions standards set by the U.S. government.
Before we even started the tour, I had a question: Don’t modern sewage plants already incinerate waste? I learned that some just turn the waste into solids that are stored in the desert. Others burn it using diesel or some other fuel that they buy. That means they use a lot of energy, which makes them impractical in most poor countries.
The Omniprocessor solves that problem. Through the ingenious use of a steam engine, it produces more than enough energy to burn the next batch of waste. In other words, it powers itself, with electricity to spare. The next-generation processor, more advanced than the one I saw, will handle waste from 100,000 people, producing up to 86,000 liters of potable water a day and a net 250 kw of electricity.
If we get it right, it will be a good example of how philanthropy can provide seed money that draws bright people to work on big problems, eventually creating a self-supporting industry. Our foundation is funding Janicki to do the development. It’s really amazing to see how they’ve embraced the work; founder Peter Janicki and his family have traveled to Africa and India multiple times so they can see the scope of the problem. Our goal is to make the processors cheap enough that entrepreneurs in low- and middle-income countries will want to invest in them and then start profitable waste-treatment businesses.
We still have a lot to learn before we get to that point. The next step is the pilot project; later this year, Janicki will set up an Omniprocessor in Dakar, Senegal, where they’ll study everything from how you connect with the local community (the team is already working with leaders there) to how you pick the most convenient location. They will also test one of the coolest things I saw on my tour: a system of sensors and webcams that will let Janicki’s engineers control the processor remotely and communicate with the team in Dakar so they can diagnose any problems that come up.
The history of philanthropy is littered with well-intentioned inventions that never deliver on their promise. Hopefully, these early steps will help us make sure the Omniprocessor doesn’t join the list. If things go well in Senegal, we’ll start looking for partners in the developing world. For example I think it could be a great fit in India, where there are lots of entrepreneurs who could own and operate the processors, as well as companies with the skill to manufacture many of the parts.
It might be many years before the processor is being used widely. But I was really impressed with Janicki’s engineering. And I’m excited about the business model. The processor wouldn’t just keep human waste out of the drinking water; it would turn waste into a commodity with real value in the marketplace. It’s the ultimate example of that old expression: one man’s trash is another man’s treasure.
Most doctors including Angelo Cuzalina agree that sugar is not good for the overall health, and it is certainly not good for the teeth. These types of drinks are the major culprit for tooth enamel damage, and a new research suggests that these drinks are also bearing the fault for the tooth caries in children.
The results of the research have been published in the Journal of General Dentistry, by consuming energy or sports drinks for only as little as 5 days consecutively, the teeth are already exposed to a high risk of decay and enamel damage. Moreover, the energy drinks have proved twice as harmful for the teeth as the sports drinks.
Jennifer Bone, who is the spokesperson for the Academy of General Dentistry says that quite often, patients come to her office with oral health symptoms such as tooth sensitivity or tooth decay, and they simply cannot find a reasonable answer for these symptoms.
Certainly the dentists make a thorough review of the patient’s everyday diet or snacking habits, and of course they ask the patients about what type of drinks they do consume. The patients are basically stunned to find out that it is the sports drinks or the energy drinks the ones that cause these symptoms in the first place.
Researchers from the Southern Illinois University School of Dentistry have analyzed many different types of sports drinks and energy drinks. According to the findings, the sports and the energy drinks from different brands contain different amounts of acidity levels.
The researchers even put tooth enamel samples into these drinks in order to notice the damage caused by the fizzy beverages. They allowed these samples to be soaked for about 15 minutes, and then soaked the samples in artificially created saliva.
In as few as five days, the researchers could notice quite some damages to the tooth enamel on the samples. Dentists around the world including the dentists from Mt Pleasant Dental highly recommend that people who consume such sports or energy drinks on a regular basis, should always rinse their mouths with water after drinking.
This way, all those bad sugars which will be later transformed into harmful acids by the bacteria, will be flushed away and the damages can be thus avoided.
Predicted by the World Food Organization, in 2025 1.8 billion people will live in countries and regions suffering from water scarcity.
In total, two thirds of the world’s population will be faced with this problem.
Over the past century, the growth rate of water consumption is almost twice faster than population growth.
Researchers tell that today 1.1 billion people don’t have access to clean drinking water, 2 billion are constantly faced with scarcity of supply and another 2.6 billion do not have at their disposal necessary sanitary facilities (e.g. water supply).
70% of water consumed by mankind is used in agriculture.
In some developing countries agriculture’s zone reaches 90%.
According to World Health Organization (WHO), today four out of every ten people in the world do not have access to common toilets with dump wells and two out of ten are forced to constantly use contaminated water.
WHO operates the following statistics: 1.8 million people die each year from diarrhea diseases (including cholera), 90% of whom are children under 5 years old.
These diseases in 88% of cases are caused by using contaminated water and inadequate sanitation.
Improved water supply reduces diarrhea morbidity by 6-25%. Improving the quality of drinking water may reduce the incidence of diarrhea by 35-39%.
Improving access to safe water sources and hygiene practices can reduce trachoma morbidity by 27%.
According to Peter Piper, professor from Sheffield University, carbonated drinks contain a substance which harmful effects are still being underestimated.
Many of the problems that are associated with age-related changes or alcohol abuse, such as cirrhosis of the liver and Parkinson’s disease can be caused by usual soft drinks.
After spending a huge amount of time on experiments in his laboratory, Professor of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, P. Piper came to the conclusion that sodium benzoate (E211), a widespread preservative in food industry being accepted by relevant authorities in different countries, can be very dangerous for your health.
Sodium benzoate has already been the subject of concern, but at that time it dealt with its carcinogenic effect.
The fact is that in conjunction with vitamin C in soft drinks, sodium benzoate produces benzene – a carcinogenic substance. There are even cases of withdrawing of some brands of drinks from the sale due to increased benzene content.
However, in general E211 is considered a safe additive, of course, with respect to current regulations at its maximum content in products.
Peter Piper has checked the effect of sodium benzoate on living yeast cells and found that this agent affects an important area of DNA in the mitochondria. He reported that these chemicals cause severe damage to DNA in the mitochondria and completely inactivate it.
Mitochondria give you energy and if you hurt them in large quantities, the cells start to malfunction. There are many diseases that are associated specifically with defect of this part of DNA: Parkinson’s disease and several neurodegenerative diseases; and yet it is associated with aging.
As a result of his experiments, the scientist proposes to revise standards of levels of E211 in food.
He believes that the existing methods for determining the damage from sodium benzoate are not quite true. Piper is particularly concerned of children who consume carbonated drinks in large quantities.
Soda is not good for you. The high-calorie, sugary drinks have been linked to obesity and a host of other health problems. Soda can be particularly dangerous to children, who can consume lots of calories quickly through colas and other pop without feeling full. And then there’s the dental toll — it doesn’t take a peer-reviewed study to tell you that drinking lots of sweetened soda isn’t great for your teeth.
But soda isn’t just water, corn syrup and carbonation — a can of Coke or Pepsi also contains chemical additives for coloring and flavoring. And according to one public health group, those additives could increase your chance of getting cancer.
That’s the message from the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), a Washington-based consumer watchdog group. CSPI has petitioned the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ban the “caramel coloring” that is used in Coke, Pepsi and other sodas, on the grounds that the chemicals are carcinogenic.
CSPI says the artificial brown coloring — which doesn’t have much to do with actual caramel, despite the name — is made by reacting corn sugar with ammonia and sulfites under high pressures and at high temperatures. (Just like Mom used to do it!) Those reactions produce the chemicals 2-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole — chemicals that government studies have found to cause lung, liver or thyroid cancer in lab rats or mice. “It’s a small but significant risk, and it’s the kind of thing that government agencies should deal with,” says Michael Jacobson, the executive director of CSPI.
Is Jacobson right? A 2007 study by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) found “clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) in male and
female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms,” otherwise known as lung tumors. The state of California has also concluded that 4-MEI is a carcinogen, and is in the process of crafting regulations that may require food and drinks containing significant levels of the chemical to bear cancer warnings.
According to California’s regulators, a level of more than 16 micrograms per day would pose a significant risk — meaning it could result in at least one excess case of cancer per 100,000 exposed people. Given that there are roughly 130 micrograms of 4-MI per 12-ounce can of soda — and given that the average American drinks 14 ounces of soda a day, with young men drinking far more — that would mean that most of us would be at some risk.
As a result, CSPI has been petitioning the FDA to change the name or ban the use of the chemicals in soda and other foods, or at least force manufacturers to put warning labels on their packaging. “We think industry can solve this problem,” says Jacobson. “They don’t want to put warning labels on their products.”
The soda industry, however, is fighting back. In a statement the American Beverage Association — an industry group that includes soda makers — denied that 4-MEI posed any danger to human health:
4-MEI is not a threat to human health. There is no evidence that 4-MEI causes cancer in humans. No health regulatory agency around the globe, including the Food and Drug Administration, has said that 4-MEI is a human carcinogen. This petition is nothing more than another attempt to scare consumers by an advocacy group long-dedicated to attacking the food and beverage industry.
In California a number of industry groups — including the American Beverage Association — have filed a lawsuit against state regulators to block efforts to list 4-MEI as a carcinogen:
The state agency’s decision does not reflect sound science and failed to follow its own regulations. Also, it did not take into account all the data available on the subject in this process.
Energy drinks, many of which contain too much caffeine, may be harmful to children, according to a new study published on Monday.
The finding was based on a review of the literature on energy drinks, researchers at the University of Miami said in the study appearing in the journal Pediatrics.
Many of the energy drinks reviewed contain three times the caffeine of a cola and some of which have five times more, said the study.
The study showed that caffeine in the drinks can exacerbate cardiac conditions, especially in children with eating disorders, and interfere with calcium absorption and bone mineralization in young adolescents.
Energy drinks produce extra calories which can contribute to diabetes, high body mass index and dental problems, according to the study.
Also, energy drinks contain additional ingredients which may boost caffeine levels, said the study.
The study also found that many children and young adults in the United States have tried energy drinks, and some consume them heavily.
A survey of college students reported that 51 percent regularly consumed one or more of the drinks per month, and a majority of those students drank them several times a week.
Insufficient sleep and a desire for more energy were cited as reasons for such consumption, said the study.
The drinks are unregulated in the United States, and the number of overdoses of caffeine from drinking them remains unknown, the study said.
But in Germany, Ireland and New Zealand, officials have reported cases of liver damage, kidney failure, seizures, confusion and arrhythmias associated with energy drink use, according to the study.
The British government is looking into the effect of hard water on eczema sufferers. The aim by a study supported by the Department of Health is to test the effect of installing water softeners into eczema sufferers' homes in a bid to alleviate the painful condition.
The British government is looking into the effect of hard water on eczema sufferers. The aim by a study supported by the Department of Health is to test the effect of installing water softeners into eczema sufferers’ homes in a bid to alleviate the painful condition.
Scientists will test the effect on children between 6 months and 16 years old who have moderate to severe eczema. The reason why water softeners are being installed is because past studies have revealed a correlation between hard water areas and a prevalence of eczema.
In the UK, nearly 20% of children have eczema conditions of some level and it is usually found on the ankles, face, knees and neck.
The study originally started in 2007 with 230 participants and before it comes to a conclusion in August 2009, the study leaders want to enrol another 80 participants.
The study involves the children’s parents keeping a record of the eczema symptoms and the child wearing a wrist band that detects scratching at night. Also, for 3 months a water softener is installed in the home and then removed for 4 weeks to observe if there is any change to the symptoms.
One mother tells the story of her son’s participation in the study:
Anne-Marie said “Dylan (her son) had bleeding sores, and even changing him was heart-breaking. Every time his skin was exposed, he started scratching. And he wouldn’t sleep for more than an hour without waking up to scratch.”
“We had about a dozen different creams on prescription and I was at my wit’s end,” she added.
The water softener resulted in a fast and pronounced improvement in the baby’s condition.
Anne-Marie described the effect of using softened water in the home: “Less than two weeks after the softener was installed there was a dramatic improvement. Now there’s barely a mark on him. He’s a completely different baby.”
From Portsmouth University, Professor Tara Dean who is looking after the study said: “If water softeners are found to improve the symptoms of eczema it will be a breakthrough for both patients and doctors.”
It’s a very interesting to know about the most popular non-alcoholic drinks in the world. Where are they from, what are their compositions and some special features about them.
Tea is a drink made by infusing leaves of the tea plant in hot water. The name ‘tea’ is also used to refer to the leaves themselves; and it is also the name of a mid- to late-afternoon meal in the British Isles and associated countries, at which tea (the drink) is served along with various foods.
Tea has been an item of trade and tribute for at least three thousand years. It was first cultivated and brewed in China, and many of the best varieties still come from China. Some of the finest oolongs in the world are grown in Taiwan. Japan also produces a considerable amount of green tea, most of which is consumed domestically.
After the British took up tea drinking, they began cultivating the plants native to India in order to have more control over the trade. India, Sri Lanka, and other South Asian countries produce a large portion of the world harvest.
Standage says tea played a leading role in the expansion of imperial and industrial might in Great Britain many centuries later. During the 19th century, the East India Company enjoyed a monopoly on tea exports from China.
As the Industrial Revolution of 18th and 19th centuries gained steam, tea provided some of the fuel. Factory workers stayed alert during long, monotonous shifts thanks to welcome tea breaks.
The beverage also had unintended health benefits for rapidly growing urban areas.
Water (H2O) is often perceived to be ordinary as it is transparent, odorless, tasteless and ubiquitous. It is the simplest compound of the two most common reactive elements, consisting of just two hydrogen atoms attached to a single oxygen atom. Indeed, very few molecules are smaller or lighter.
From a biological standpoint, water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life that set it apart from other substances. It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow replication. All known forms of life depend on water. Without water, your body would stop working properly. Water makes up more than half of your body weight and a person can’t survive for more than a few days without it. Why? Your body has lots of important jobs and it needs water to do many of them. For instance, your blood, which contains a lot of water, carries oxygen to all the cells of your body. Without oxygen, those tiny cells would die and your body would stop working. In addition to being an important part of the fluids in your body, each cell depends on water to function normally.
Coffee is a well-known beverage prepared from coffee beans, of the coffee plant.
The story of how coffee growing and drinking spread around the world is one of the greatest and most romantic in history and starts in the Arabian Peninsula, where roasted beans were first brewed around A.D. 1000. Sometime around the 15th century coffee spread throughout the Arab world.
When coffee arrived in Europe it was similarly hailed as an “anti-alcohol” that was quite welcome during the Age of Reason in the 18th century.
Coffee raises capacity for work, gives strengths and energy and topes up. But there is a negative coffee’s influence in the human’s health because of its caffeine.
Coffee also fuelled commerce and had strong links to the rituals of business that remain to the present day.
Kvass is a very refreshing Russian beverage which is made in many Russian households about once a week. Kvass is a lacto-fermented beverage made from stale rye bread. It tastes like beer but is not alcoholic. Kvass is considered a tonic for digestion and excellent thirst. It is also recognized that kvass is safer to drink than water.
Kvass protects against infectious disease, there is no worry about sharing the glass. In wealthy households, various kinds of kvass were made either with rye bread or with currants, raspberries, lemons, apples, pears, cherries, bilberries and lingonberries.
Real bread kvass using natural ingredients in its production technology – dried rye bread, sugar and water. As a result of the fermentation process, a thirst-quenching drink is obtained, with a distinct bread aroma and a strong rye bread taste. Unifying modern production technology with ancient fermenting methods, a flavor composition is obtained reflecting a product of a completely new quality, which pleasantly quenches thirst. Recommended to be used chilled!
The alcohol content is so low (0.05-1.44%) that it is considered acceptable for consumption by children. It is often flavoured with fruits or herbs such as strawberries or mint.
Juice is a liquid naturally contained in fruit or vegetable tissue. Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing or macerating fresh fruits or vegetables without the application of heat or solvents. For example, orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree. Juice may be prepared in the home from fresh fruits and vegetables using variety of hand or electric juicers.
Popular juices include but are not limited to apple, orange, prune, lemon, grapefruit, pineapple, tomato, carrot, grape, strawberry, cherry, cranberry, celery and pomegranate. It has become increasingly popular to combine a variety of fruits into single juice drinks.
Juices are often consumed for their health benefits. For example, orange juice is rich in vitamin C, while prune juice is associated with a digestive health benefit. Cranberry juice has long been known to help prevent or even treat bladder infections, and it is now known that a substance in cranberries prevents bacteria from binding to the bladder.
Lemonade is a worldwide non-alcoholic drink. Summer is the best time of drinking it especially with the mint. Iced lemonade always will slake and will raise your mood.
It’s a drink made of lemon juice (fresh better), water and sugar or honey. Lemonade much better and healthy than any soft drink. To prepare lemonade is so easy as preparing tea or coffee.
In the US, a drink made of lemon juice, sugar and water in the UK, a carbonated drink that doesn’t necessarily contain anything closer to a lemon than a bit of citric acid.
Like the earth, humans and all other animal life are about three-quarters water. It is therefore no wonder that drinking plenty of water is so vital to our well being.
Many times a day we feel our energy levels falling and we reach for food when, in fact, we are actually in need of water. How often do we spend money and time on medical treatment for conditions which could have easily been prevented through proper hydration.
Experts say that we are often dehydrated even before we feel thirsty. Water is essential to keep us fit and healthy
6 Tips on drinking more water:
Add flavored packets If water alone bores you, take advantage of the new flavor packets that are sold specifically to enhance the taste of water.
Get fun to go containers Always have water with you or in the car. Get good size, fun colored containers. The larger the container, the fewer the refills.
Change your daily habits Wake up to your first glass of water.
Make it a rule to order water (with or without lemon) instead of a diet soda when you go out to eat.
Drink a glass before you eat Water helps to curb your appetite. It is easy to confuse hunger with being thirsty, so try water first. Drinking water makes you feel active.
Use straws, add ice and a lemon or even a small slice of orange Make this glass of water feel like a treat.
So what are we waiting for? Let us drink eight glasses of water a day. It is easy, costs nothing and the benefits are life changing.
So how much water should one drink each day? The question seems like it commands a simple answer, but the reality is that the response varies based upon your body’s needs. A lot of sources will tell you that you need a minimum of 8 glasses a day, but the truth of the matter is that you need to obey your own internal requirements.
Experts are now saying that there is no set number. Rather, when you are thirsty, you should drink. If you find yourself experiencing headaches or dizziness, chances are that you are depriving your body of water, whether or not you are meeting the 8 glasses a day standard. If your urine is highly concentrated and anything other than clear/very pale yellow in color, then that is another telltale sign that your body wants more.
So, how much should you drink? – Lots!
Six to ten glasses is a safe bet but if you want to be more specific it’s recommended you drink 50 – 75% of your body weight in ounces depending on whether you are sedentary or active.
You might also want to add a bit more if it’s really hot or you are working extra hard, so for example, a person who weighs 150 lbs, lives in a dry climate and is doing strenuous exercises should drink 75% x 150 oz = 112 oz + 15 oz (activity) + 15 oz (climate) = Total 142 oz per day.
A frequently quoted figure is that adults should drink eight glasses of water a day, although Dr John Leiper, an expert in fluid balance and hydration at Aberdeen University, disputes it. “The figure of eight glasses a day is completely spurious. There is no evidence that drinking that much water does anybody any good. Although it probably won’t be doing you any harm.”
While it is true that individuals will on average lose about eight glasses worth of water a day, it doesn’t have to be replenished by water: soft drinks, even coffee, all help rehydration. “There is nothing wrong with drinking coffee,” says Dr Leiper. “The idea that coffee is a diuretic is nonsense. Yes, if you give someone who is completely caffeine naive a lot of caffeine, then it will act as a diuretic on them. But if you are used to drinking a lot of coffee then it won’t – your body gets used to it.
In healthy adults, fluid intake is regulated by thirst. Water is an essential nutrient for life and is considered the ideal drink to quench thirst and ensure hydration.
Ironically, it is very often ignored as part of our dietary recommendations. Most people are familiar with the general recommendation for adults of eight glasses of water per day. Yet, estimating water or fluid intake requirements is not easy and individual requirements are highly variable.
The National Research Council (NRC) recommends a daily water intake of approximately 1ml/kcal energy expenditure. The eight glasses of water per day is based on this recommendation and on the average weight of a 70kg male.
No single formula fits every individual or every situation and water intake recommendations also depend on other factors such as activity, humidity, climate, body temperature and body composition.
Daily turnover of water is approximately 4% of total body weight and even higher proportions in children.
Water losses from the lungs and skin (insensible losses; 500 – 1000ml/day) are responsible for approximately half of the daily turnover and sensible losses from stools (50 -100ml/day) and urine account for the rest of the daily losses.
Yet, despite of changes in body composition and function as well as the environment, most healthy people manage to regulate daily water balance well across their lifespan.
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) established the Dietary Reference Intakes for water . The committee established the Adequate Intake (AI) for total water to prevent dehydration.
Based on a wide range of normal hydration status of the population, the AI was established according to the median total fluid intake (water, fluid from food and other drinks). The AI’s for sedentary men and women (aged 19-50 years) is 3,71 and 2,71 litres per day respectively.
Solid food and digestion of food also contributes to this recommendation. Drinking fluids represents approximately 81% of total water intake, resulting in a recommended intake of 3,01 litres per day for men (12 glasses of 250ml) and 2,71 liters per day (10 glasses of 250ml) for women.
Non-Alcoholic Mixed Drinks are often served to children, designated drivers and anyone else who wishes to enjoy a refreshing, (usually) fruity, drink without alcohol.
Virgin cocktails are usually made in a similar manner as the traditional cocktails, adjusting the proportions of other ingredients as necessary to fill the same volume, while retaining the overall taste and feel of the drink.
1. Amaretto Stone Sweet Mixed Drink Recipe
2 1/2 oz Blanks® Amaretto (One of a range of non-alcoholic and lower-calorie liqueurs produced by Blanks.)
2 oz Cherry Syrup
4 oz Orange Juice
Orange juice is one of the most important ingredients (and the most important fruit juice) to have when making cocktails. To get the most juice out of a fresh orange, bring it to room temperature and roll it under your palm against a hard surface before squeezing. Another method is to microwave them on high power for 30 seconds, let stand a couple of minutes before cutting and squeezing them.
4 oz 7-Up® Soda Ice
Blend with ice.
2. Avocado Milkshake Mixed Drink Recipe
1 liter Milk
2 – 3 Halved and Peeled Avocados
1/2 cup Sugar
Blend on medium for 3 to 5 minutes. (Use sugar, peeled avocado, condensed milk, and evaporated milk, and ice… works. delicious).
3. Banana Grape Smoothie Mixed Drink Recipe
2 Large Bananas
2 Handfuls Red, Seedless Grapes
1 cup Ice
Ice is essential for all types of mixed drinks, and it should always be clean and clear. Usually you would add ice to a glass before pouring any ingredients into it. This cools the liquids and prevents splashes.
1/4 cup Milk
Place the bananas and grapes into a blender and mix until it is a “smooth” liquid. Add the ice and blend until crushed. Add milk, mix until smooth and pour into a hurricane glass. Serve.
4. Black Cow Mixed Drink Recipe
2 scoops Vanilla Ice Cream
10 oz Root Beer (A non-alcoholic, carbonated drink, sweetened and flavored with a combination of artificial and natural flavorings).
1 tbsp Chocolate Syrup (A sweet combination of unsweetened cocoa powder, corn syrup and sugar, amongst other flavorings).
1 1/2 oz Whipped Cream (A type of cream containing sugar and emulsifiers. Whipped cream expands on release from pressurized cans).
Maraschino Cherries (A sugar syrup coated cherry, dyed red and flavored with almond).
Pour root beer over ice cream and chocolate syrup in a large tumbler glass. Garnish with whipped cream and a maraschino cherry. Serve with a straw and a long spoon.
5. Cherry Spritzer Mixed Drink Recipe
2 oz 100% Cherry Juice
4 oz Mineral Water
Mineral water is water is considered spring water with a larger amount of dissolved mineral salts, that is, at least 250 parts per million of dissolved salts.There is no unpleasant taste in mineral water, and a neutral odor. Although, despite claims to the contrary, there is no proof that mineral water is any better for your health than tap water.
Pour the cherry juice into the old-fashioned glass filled previously with 3 to 5 ice cubes and add the mineral water. Stir before you serve. You can mix the juice and the mineral water in the fifty-fifty percent relation too, but it is faster energy-delivering and even healthier this way.
Hot chocolate is a welcome treat on a cold fall or winter day. It’s a classic delicacy loved by adults and children alike. There are many unique flavors and varieties of instant hot chocolate available in stores, but they can be quite expensive. You can make your own delicious hot cocoa for a fraction of what stores charge. Besides being less expensive, homemade hot cocoa is often richer and tastier than hot cocoa available in stores.
White chocolate has a rich, creamy flavor that is quite different from regular brown chocolate. The following recipe makes six delicious cups of creamy white hot chocolate. This unique drink will surprise and impress chocolate connoisseurs as well as those who prefer white chocolate to brown chocolate.
Making a Cup of Hot Chocolate
Most people don’t know how to make hot chocolate from cocoa properly. While if you are making hot chocolate from hot chocolate powder, you can just slop it into a mug with some milk and microwave it, this approach will not work for cocoa, or for cold chocolate.
Those of us accustomed to eating chocolate may be surprised to learn that chocolate was originally enjoyed as a drink. Although most of us today make our chocolate from a powdered mix, making the real thing is as simple as melting some chocolate and mixing it with hot milk. And does it taste good! This recipe makes about 10 servings.
Steps of Homemade Hot Chocolate Preparation
Chop the chocolate into small pieces and place in a mixing bowl.
Heat the milk over medium-low heat until it steams and is very hot to the touch.
Add the sugar and vanilla and stir until the sugar has dissolved. Shut off the heat.
Ladle out about 1 c. of the milk and pour it over the chocolate.
Let the chocolate melt slowly. Stir it with a whisk to get all the chocolate in contact with the milk.
Continue adding milk and stirring until all the milk has been incorporated.
Stir together, then ladle into serving cups.
Angelina’s Hot Chocolate
The Angelina Cafe in Paris, open since 1903, serves a thick hot chocolate version in demitasse cups with a tiny dollop of mascarpone and whipped cream. They are famous for making hot chocolate from melted chocolate bars. It is incredibly easy to prepare by mixing chocolate shavings with hot water. You can serve it in small cups or in 17th-century style chocolate pots and demitasse cups such as those sold in gourmet shops.
6 ounces fine-quality semisweet or bittersweet chocolate, chopped
1/4 cup water, room temperature
3 tablespoons hot water
3 cups hot milk, divided
Sugar to taste
Whipped cream, if desired
In a double boiler over low heat, combine chocolate and 1/4 cup water until melted, stirring occasionally; stir until smooth.
Remove top of double boiler pan from. Whisk in 3 tablespoons hot water. Pour into pitcher or divide among individual 4 mugs. Either stir 3/4 cup hot milk into each mug or serve milk in a separate pitcher. Pass sugar and whipped cream in separate bowls; add to taste.
Makes 4 servings… and eat all Hot Chocolate… because it’s so tasty
Hot Chocolate for Adults
Don’t bother chopping up chocolate, this recipe calls for easy-to-use chocolate chips. This is a pretty strong but mellow hot chocolate cocktail.
3 cups milk
1/2 cup chocolate chips
1 cup half-n-half
1/2 cup rum
1/2 cup sugar
1/2 cup hazelnut liqueur (Frangelico)
You don’t really need to chop the chocolate chips, but you can if you want the chocolate to melt really quickly. Melt chocolate in a double boiler, or whatever method you prefer.
In another saucepan heat milk, half-n-half cream and sugar to almost boiling.
Stir until sugar is dissolved. Add 1 cup of the hot milk mixture to the chocolate and mix well. Pour into the rest of the milk and stir until smooth. Pour in rum and liqueur. Heat the finished hot chocolate through, and serve.
Mayan Hot Chocolate
2 cups boiling water
1 chile pepper, cut in half, seeds removed (with gloves)
5 cups light cream or whole or nonfat milk
1 vanilla bean, split lengthwise
1 to 2 cinnamon sticks
8 ounces bittersweet chocolate or
3 tablets Mexican chocolate, cut into 1/4-inch pieces
2 tablespoons sugar or honey, or to taste
l tablespoon almonds or hazelnuts, ground extra fine
In a large saucepan over medium-high heat, add chile pepper to boiling water. Cook hot chocolate until liquid is reduced to 1 cup. Remove chile pepper; strain water and set aside.
In a medium saucepan over medium heat, combine cream or milk, vanilla bean and cinnamon stick until bubbles appear around the edge. Reduce heat to low; add chocolate and sugar or honey; whisk occasionally until chocolate is melted and sugar dissolves. Turn off heat; remove vanilla bean and cinnamon stick. Add chile-infused water, a little at a time, tasting to make sure the flavor isn’t too strong. If chocolate is too thick, thin with a little more milk.
Serve in small cups and offer ground almonds or hazelnuts and whipped cream.
Black tea promotes healthy arteries and increased blood flow due to antioxidants called falconoids, which give tea its flavor. Cholesterol levels drop as tea consumption increases. Tea is reported to reduce the risk of cancer, yield fresher breath and fewer cavities, and help build bones. It also contains approximately half the caffeine of coffee, and is a rich source of vitamins and minerals.
Making a Cup of Black Tea
The single most important thing to remember in all of this process is heat. The tea leafs impart their taste to the water most effectively when the water is actually boiling. To make really good tea you must go to every length possible to exclude coldness from the equation.
Tea in the cup is easy. If someone asks you for a cup of black tea and you put a bag in a cup and add boiling water no one is going to complain. However… to make a REALLY GOOD cup of black tea…
Boil a kettle with freshly drawn COLD water. Add a little boiling water to the empty tea cup to warm it. Put a single bag of black tea into the bottom of the cup making certain that the tea takes up as much of the visible surface area as possible.
When the water is boiling pour it into the cup by taking the kettle to the cup and trying to make certain that as much boiling water hits as much tea as soon as possible. Leave to infuse. The tea in tea bags is so fine that two minutes should see you right.
Always take out the tea bag before giving the cup to someone else especially since if you leave a tea bag in then soon enough all the air caught within it will escape and the tea bag will sink to the bottom of the cup where it will lie in wait for the unwary and then, just as you move to drain the last dregs of the drink, it will rush from the darkness like a some satanic seal desperate to invade your mouth and propigate it’s evil children in the cavities of your cheeks. Well may be it’s not that bad, but it is really unpleasant to get that big cold wet kiss of a sulking tea bag.
Don’t add sugar. Sugar is unnecessary, unhealthy and masks the delicious flavor of tea. Most importantly when making a cup of black tea is NEVER “top up” a cup with more water. “Topping up” does not make more black tea in the cup it makes the same amount of tea diluted with more water. This will kill the taste of your tea and make you generally hated by all right minded tea drinkers. Be prepared when adding the water first – realize that you will have to take the tea bag out and realize that you will probably need to leave a little room for milk.
People drink Black tea with sugar, milk and syrups. In the US and Europe people often just want a slice of Lemon with their black tea.
People all over the world always choose drinking tea with cookies, sweets or cakes sitting in front of the TV or talking to friends.
Black Tea Recipes
Iced Black Tea
Pour one cup of boiling water over two tea bags, let steep for 3 to 5 minutes. For stronger flavor, steep longer, or use more tea bags. Remove and squeeze out tea bags. Add ice and enjoy. Make a larger quantity using more tea bags and water, and refrigerate the rest to drink throughout the day.
Egg Nog Delight
6 Red Rose English Breakfast tea bags
1 can (14 oz.) sweetened condensed milk
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 quart milk
1/2 pint whipping cream
Brew Red Rose tea bags in 1 cup boiling water. Steep for 5 minutes. Remove tea bags. Cool tea. Add beaten eggs, condensed milk, vanilla, salt, tea, milk and mix well. Serve in mugs. Top each mug with whipping cream and ground nutmeg.
Earl Grey Punch
1 and 1/4 cups of brewed Earl Grey (made with two tbsps. leaves)
Juice of 1 lemon
1 1/4 cups of orange juice
1/2 cups apple juice
1 cup gingerale
1 tbsp. sugar
2 sprigs of mint (optional)
Dark rum to taste (optional)
Mix all ingredients together leaving out the ice cubes. Chill in refrigerator. Remove mint, add ice cubes and serve.
Migraines affect more than 36 million Americans – that’s nearly one out of every ten people! It’s also in the top twenty disabilities that cause people to miss work. The thing is, if they all knew this secret to curing and preventing these chronically severe headaches, that number would see a drastic reduction.
Fruit tea - one word describes it - DELICIOUS and HEALTHY.
Fruit tea comprised of browned shredded quince which has been oven-dried, dry-grilled until brown, and stored ready to steep in boiling water.